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Mission. The undergraduate program in Philosophy trains students to think clearly and critically about the deepest and broadest questions concerning being, knowledge, and value, as well as their connections to the full range of human activities and interests. The Philosophy major presents students with the perspectives of past thinkers and ...British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 69: 421–445. Amundson, R., 2000. “Against Normal Function,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science (Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences), 31: 33–53. Antonovsky, A., 1987.1. Integrity as Self-Integration. On the self-integration view of integrity, integrity is a matter of persons integrating various parts of their personality into a harmonious, intact whole. Understood in this way, the integrity of persons is analogous to the integrity of things: integrity is primarily a matter of keeping the self intact and ...Karl Popper is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the twentieth century. He was also a social and political philosopher of considerable stature, a self-professed critical-rationalist, a dedicated opponent of all forms of scepticism and relativism in science and in human affairs generally and a committed advocate and staunch defender of the …Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another. At least since the Crusades and the conquest of the Americas, political theorists have used theories of justice, contract, and natural law to both criticize and justify European domination. In the nineteenth century, the contradiction between ...Formal epistemology explores knowledge and reasoning using “formal” tools, tools from math and logic. For example, a formal epistemologist might use probability theory to explain how scientific reasoning works. Or she might use modal logic to defend a particular theory of knowledge. The questions that drive formal epistemology are often the ...Carl Schmitt. First published Sat Aug 7, 2010; substantive revision Thu Aug 29, 2019. Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) was a conservative German legal, constitutional, and political theorist. Schmitt is often considered to be one of the most important critics of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and liberal cosmopolitanism.Stanford Libraries' Philosophy collections comprise books, journals, and references materials, in print and electronic formats, covering topics such as ethics, logic, metaphysics, epistemology, …Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Addeddate. 2020-10-30 06:51:10. Identifier. encyclopedia-of-philosophy_202010. Identifier-ark. ark:/13960/t2m71308t. Ocr. ABBYY …Philosophy of History. First published Sun Feb 18, 2007; substantive revision Tue Nov 24, 2020. The concept of history plays a fundamental role in human thought. It invokes notions of human agency, change, the role of material circumstances in human affairs, and the putative meaning of historical events. It raises the possibility of "learning ...A handy tool in the search for precise definitions is the specification of necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the application of a term, the use of a concept, or the occurrence of some phenomenon or event. For example, without water and oxygen, there would be no human life; hence these things are necessary conditions for the …Aristotle’s Rhetoric. First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 15, 2022. Aristotle’s Rhetoric has had an unparalleled influence on the development of the art of rhetoric. In addition to Aristotle’s disciples and followers, the so-called Peripatetic philosophers (see Fortenbaugh/Mirhady 1994), famous Roman teachers of ...1. Knowledge as Justified True Belief. There are three components to the traditional (“tripartite”) analysis of knowledge. According to this analysis, justified, true belief is necessary and sufficient for knowledge. The Tripartite Analysis of Knowledge: S knows that p iff. p is true;Sep 30, 2011 · The Greek word sophistēs, formed from the noun sophia, ‘wisdom’ or ‘learning’, has the general sense ‘one who exercises wisdom or learning’. As sophia could designate specific types of expertise as well as general sagacity in the conduct of life and the higher kinds of insight associated with seers and poets, the word originally ... First published Wed May 23, 2001; substantive revision Fri May 13, 2022. Panpsychism is the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. The view has a long and venerable history in philosophical traditions of both East and West, and has recently enjoyed a revival in analytic philosophy.First published Mon Aug 14, 2006; substantive revision Mon Jun 3, 2019. Contemporary Anglophone philosophers of mind generally use the term “belief” to refer to the attitude we have, roughly, whenever we take something to be the case or regard it as true. To believe something, in this sense, needn’t involve actively reflecting on it: Of ...al-Ghazali. First published Tue Aug 14, 2007; substantive revision Fri May 8, 2020. Al-Ghazâlî ( c .1056–1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mystics of Sunni Islam. He was active at a time when Sunni theology had just passed through its consolidation and entered a period of intense ...Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another. At least since the Crusades and the conquest of the Americas, political theorists have used theories of justice, contract, and natural law to both criticize and justify European domination. In the nineteenth century, the contradiction between ...Creationism. First published Sat Aug 30, 2003; substantive revision Fri Sep 21, 2018. At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Such a deity is generally thought to be “transcendent” meaning beyond human experience, and constantly ...The metaphysical philosopher’s goal is to attain an observer’s perspective on reality, from which they can learn universal and necessary truths. Philosophy can thus act as the judge and arbiter of both science and culture (1983 [1990: 2–3]). Idealism and identity thinking (1988b essay 3 [1992a: 29–31]). Metaphysics assumes that ideas ...The philosopher Empedocles was a native of the south-central Sicilian polis of Acragas (Agrigento). Although the precise dates of his lifetime are unknown, the sources agree that he was born in the early fifth century BCE; according to Aristotle, he died at sixty years of age (DK 31 A 1 = P 5b).Human rights are norms that aspire to protect all people everywhere from severe political, legal, and social abuses. Examples of human rights are the right to freedom of religion, the right to a fair trial when charged with a crime, the right not to be tortured, and the right to education. The philosophy of human rights addresses …In the discipline of international relations there are contending general theories or theoretical perspectives. Realism, also known as political realism, is a view of international politics that stresses its competitive and conflictual side. It is usually contrasted with idealism or liberalism, which tends to emphasize cooperation.Nov 9, 2005 · 5. Locke and Punishment. John Locke defined political power as “a right of making laws with penalties of death, and consequently all less Penalties” ( Two Treatises 2.3). Locke’s theory of punishment is thus central to his view of politics and part of what he considered innovative about his political philosophy. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Coverage Dates: 1997 - present. Provider: Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, ...This article considers several questions concerning the philosophy of death. First, it discusses what it is to be alive. This topic arises because to die is roughly to lose one’s life. The second topic is the nature of death, and how it bears on the persistence of organisms and persons. The third topic is the harm thesis, the claim that death ...1. Preliminaries. Three preliminary comments are needed. Firstly, there has been a great deal of debate in recent philosophy about the relationship between realism, construed as a metaphysical doctrine, and doctrines in the theory of meaning and philosophy of language concerning the nature of truth and its role in accounts of linguistic understanding (see …Research philosophy is the development of logical reasoning that incorporates contemporary ideas with previously established methods of thought through structural phases.The hallmarks of Ibn Rushd’s work are his convictions that philosophy is capable of demonstrative certainty in many domains, that it is Aristotle who should be our preeminent guide in philosophy, and that philosophy should play a central role within religious inquiry, rather than being an alternative to religion.First published Wed May 23, 2001; substantive revision Fri May 13, 2022. Panpsychism is the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. The view has a long and venerable history in philosophical traditions of both East and West, and has recently enjoyed a revival in analytic philosophy.Innateness and Language. First published Wed Jan 16, 2008. The philosophical debate over innate ideas and their role in the acquisition of knowledge has a venerable history. It is thus surprising that very little attention was paid until early last century to the questions of how linguistic knowledge is acquired and what role, if any, innate ...First published Fri Feb 23, 2007; substantive revision Wed Jul 12, 2017. The term “toleration”—from the Latin tolerare: to put up with, countenance or suffer—generally refers to the conditional acceptance of or non-interference with beliefs, actions or practices that one considers to be wrong but still “tolerable,” such that they ...Philosophy of religion is the philosophical examination of the themes and concepts involved in religious traditions as well as the broader philosophical task of reflecting on matters of religious significance including the nature of religion itself, alternative concepts of God or ultimate reality, and the religious significance of general features of the cosmos (e.g., the …26.1.2006 ... Founded in 1995, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) is a dynamic, community-maintained, digital-only reference work.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman. Because its twin foci are so broad, an encyclopedia entry on “Philosophy and Christian Theology” could legitimately go in many different directions. This entry has two …Dec 16, 2015 · First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020. Decision theory is concerned with the reasoning underlying an agent’s choices, whether this is a mundane choice between taking the bus or getting a taxi, or a more far-reaching choice about whether to pursue a demanding political career. (Note that “agent” here stands ... Jun 28, 2018 · This entry provides an introduction to the feminist philosophy section of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). Overseen by a board of feminist philosophers, this section primarily takes up feminist philosophy of the twentieth and tweny-first century. It has three subsections of entries (as can be seen in Table of Contents under ... Counterfactuals. First published Fri Jan 18, 2019. Modal discourse concerns alternative ways things can be, e.g., what might be true, what isn’t true but could have been, what should be done. This entry focuses on counterfactual modality which concerns what is not, but could or would have been.First published Sat Mar 10, 2018; substantive revision Wed Nov 24, 2021. Simone Weil (1909–1943) philosophized on thresholds and across borders. Her persistent desire for truth and justice led her to both elite academies and factory floors, political praxis and spiritual solitude. At different times she was an activist, a pacifist, a militant ...Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender. First published Mon May 12, 2008; substantive revision Tue Jan 18, 2022. Feminism is said to be the movement to end women’s oppression (hooks 2000, 26). One possible way to understand ‘woman’ in this claim is to take it as a sex term: ‘woman’ picks out human females and being a human female ...David Hume. Generally regarded as one of the most important philosophers to write in English, David Hume (1711–1776) was also well known in his own time as an historian and essayist. A master stylist in any genre, his major philosophical works— A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–1740), the Enquiries concerning Human …The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date ...Jul 18, 2003 · Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism). Suppose it is obvious that someone ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman. Kevin N. Cawley (University College Cork) Philosophy of Language: Jeffrey C. King (Rutgers University) Ben Caplan (University of Kansas) Elisabeth Camp (Rutgers University) Robin Jeshion (University of Southern California) Ofra Magidor (Oxford University) Latin American and Iberian Philosophy: Otávio Bueno (University of Miami) First published Fri Feb 23, 2007; substantive revision Wed Jul 12, 2017. The term “toleration”—from the Latin tolerare: to put up with, countenance or suffer—generally refers to the conditional acceptance of or non-interference with beliefs, actions or practices that one considers to be wrong but still “tolerable,” such that they ...Metaethics. First published Tue Jan 23, 2007; substantive revision Tue Jan 24, 2023. Metaethics is the attempt to understand the metaphysical, epistemological, semantic, and psychological, presuppositions and commitments of moral thought, talk, and practice. As such, it counts within its domain a broad range of questions and puzzles, …First published Thu Sep 23, 1999; substantive revision Wed Nov 25, 2020. Properties are those entities that can be predicated of things or, in other words, attributed to them. Thus, properties are often called predicables. Other terms for them are “attributes”, “qualities”, “features”, “characteristics”, “types”.Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), which as of March 2018, has nearly 1600 entries online. From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is …Science and Pseudo-Science. First published Wed Sep 3, 2008; substantive revision Thu May 20, 2021. The demarcation between science and pseudoscience is part of the larger task of determining which beliefs are epistemically warranted. This entry clarifies the specific nature of pseudoscience in relation to other categories of non-scientific ...May 13, 2003 · First published Tue May 13, 2003; substantive revision Sat Feb 13, 2016. Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. [ 1] Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratics and ... First published Thu Nov 1, 2018. John Dewey (1859–1952) was one of American pragmatism’s early founders, along with Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, and arguably the most prominent American intellectual for the first half of the twentieth century. Dewey’s educational theories and experiments had a global reach, his psychological ...The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some …The data comes from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the web's oldest and arguably most credible open-access source of philosophical information. Launched two …Science and Pseudo-Science. First published Wed Sep 3, 2008; substantive revision Thu May 20, 2021. The demarcation between science and pseudoscience is part of the larger task of determining which beliefs are epistemically warranted. This entry clarifies the specific nature of pseudoscience in relation to other categories of non-scientific ...Jul 18, 2003 · Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism). Suppose it is obvious that someone ... Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon (1561–1626) was one of the leading figures in natural philosophy and in the field of scientific methodology in the period of transition from the Renaissance to the early modern era. As a lawyer, member of Parliament, and Queen's Counsel, Bacon wrote on questions of law, state and religion, as well as on ...Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School.Cosmological Argument. First published Tue Jul 13, 2004; substantive revision Thu Jun 30, 2022. The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type. It uses a general pattern of argumentation ( logos) that makes an inference from particular alleged facts about the universe ( cosmos) to the existence of a unique being ...Aristotle (b. 384–d. 322 BCE), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece, and his father was a court physician ...Issues concerning scientific explanation have been a focus of philosophical attention from Pre-Socratic times through the modern period. However, modern discussion really begins with the development of the Deductive-Nomological (DN) model.This model has had many advocates (including Popper 1959, Braithwaite 1953, Gardiner, 1959, Nagel 1961) but … John Dewey (1910: 74, 82) introduced the term ‘critBuddha. The Buddha (fl. circa 450 BCE) is the individual whose teac emotion is a complex state, an AB, with [appraisal] A as cause and B as a combination of an action tendency, physiological change, and subjective affect, (Lazarus 1991a: 819) whereby the appraisal is not just a cause of emotion but also a part of it (see Moors 2013 for a critique of this assumption).C.E.) was a Neoplatonist philosopher born in Tyre in Phoenicia. He studied with Longinus in Athens and then with Plotinus in Rome from 263–269 C.E. and became a follower of the latter’s version of Platonism. Porphyry wrote in just about every branch of learning practiced at the time but only a portion of his large output is extant. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from [This was the previous entry on scientific realism in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] Worrall, John, “ Miracles, Pessimism, and Scientific Realism , unpublished manuscript. Gödel’s incompleteness theorems are among the most important re...

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A modal is an expression (like ‘necessarily’ or ‘possibly’) that is used to qualify the truth of a judgement. Modal ...

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A Greek philosopher of Ephesus (near modern Kuşadası, Turkey) who was active around 500 BCE, Heraclitus propounded a distinctive theory whi...

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It was not until John Locke that there was an explicit attempt to connect personal identity with broader ethical concerns. Locke fa...

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